Glossary

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]

A

Ageing population: A population in which the average age of people is increasing.

Age-specific mortality rates: Age-specific death rates may be calculated for each age group. These are defined as the number of deaths in the age group per 1,000 population in the same age group.  Age-specific rates may be calculated separately for males and females, or for both sexes combined.

Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs): A statistical measure to allow more precise comparisons between two or more populations by eliminating the effects in age structure.

Average: This usually refers to the mean average (see Mean), but there are other types of average with their own definitions (see Median, Mode).

B

Black Country: In Local Government terms the Black Country is defined as the four local authority districts of Dudley, Sandwell, Walsall and Wolverhampton.

C

Census: A count of all people and households in the country that takes place every ten years. It asks people about subjects such as work, health, ethnic background, education and marital status.  The 2011 Census took place on 27 March 2011, this is the most recent Census, with the next one due in 2021.

Claimant count: The number of people claiming benefit principally for the reason of being unemployed.

Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG): CCGs were created following the Health and Social Care Act in 2012, and replaced Primary Care Trusts on 1 April 2013, as of April 2018 there are 195 CCGs in England.  NHS Dudley CCG plans local services and controls the budget for hospital and some community health services across Dudley Borough for Dudley people.

Communal establishment: An establishment providing managed residential accommodation.  “Managed” in this context means full-time or part-time supervision of the accommodation.

Community forum: Community forums give people and communities in Dudley Borough direct access to Councillors and Dudley Council through regular drop in public meetings.  There are ten Community Forums in Dudley Borough which are made up of two or three wards.

Confidence Interval (CI): Confidence intervals are commonly used to indicate the extent to which an estimate, based on a sample, may differ from the true value.  The larger the confidence interval, the less precise the estimate.

D

Data visualisation: This describes a visual representation of information, data or knowledge intended to present complex information quickly and clearly, or the process of creating these representations.  Examples include charts, maps and graphics, but can be any visual elements that are intended to communicate a message.  See also Infographic.

Demographics: The number and structure of a given population, especially in relation to age, but can include other characteristics such as ethnicity and health status.

Department for Work and Pensions (DWP): The Department for Work and Pensions is a government department responsible for welfare, pensions and child maintenance policy.

Disability-free Life Expectancy (DfLE): The period of time that an individual can expect to live without a long-standing illness which limits normal daily activities.  This self-reported health state is taken from survey data in response to questions relating to long-standing illness and activity limitation resulting from it.

Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council (DMBC): Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council is the local authority responsible for the provision of an extensive range of public services in Dudley Borough.

E

Earnings by residence: The earnings information collected relates to gross pay before tax, national insurance or other deductions, and excludes payments in kind.

Economically active: People who are either in employment or unemployed.

Economically inactive: People who are neither in employment nor unemployed.  This group includes, for example, all those who were looking after a home or retired.

Employed: People in paid work (whether as an employee or self employed); those who had a job that they were temporarily away from (e.g. on holiday); those on government-supported training and employment programmes; and those doing unpaid family work.

Employment rate: The number of people in employment expressed as a percentage of all people aged 16-64.

Ethnic group: Ethnic group classifies people according to their own perceived ethnic group and cultural background.

EU Accession Countries: Countries that joined the European Union (EU) between April 2001 and March 2011, namely Bulgaria; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Estonia; Hungary; Latvia; Lithuania; Malta; Poland; Romania; Slovakia; Slovenia.

G

General Fertility Rate (GFR): The total number of live births per 1,000 women of reproductive age in a population.  For figures produced by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) reproductive age is defined as 15 to 44.

General health: A person's self-assessment of their general state of health.  This is not based on a person's health over any specified period of time.

Great Britain (GB): Great Britain is made up of England, Scotland, and Wales (including the outlying islands that they administer, such as the Isle of Wight).

Gross income: Income before deductions such as National Insurance contributions and Income Tax.

H

Health & Wellbeing Board (HWBB): Since April 2013 the Dudley Health and Wellbeing Board (HWBB) has been responsible for the health and wellbeing of all residents in Dudley Borough.  Using local evidence, it works to help identify the needs of local residents, improve efficiency, secure better care to improve health and wellbeing as well as tackle health inequalities across the Borough.

Healthy life expectancy: The period of time that an individual can expect to live in very good or good health.  This self-reported health state is taken from survey data in response to a general health question.

Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC): The UK's tax, payments and customs authority.

Household: Either one person living alone, or a group of people (not necessarily related) living at the same address who share cooking facilities and share a living room, sitting room or dining area.  A household must contain at least one person whose place of usual residence is at the address.

Household space: The accommodation occupied by an individual household or, if unoccupied, available for an individual household.

I

Infographic: A visual representation of information, data or knowledge intended to present complex information quickly and clearly.  Examples include charts, maps and graphics, but can be any visual elements that are intended to communicate a message.  See also Data Visualisation.

Internal migration: Internal migration is defined as residential moves between different local authorities (LAs) in the UK, including those that cross the boundaries between the four UK nations: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

International migration: International migration is the movement of people from one country to another and is often defined by the period of time they live in each country.

L

Life expectancy: Life expectancy at a given age for an area is the average number of years a person would live, if he or she experienced the particular areas age-specific mortality rates for that time period throughout his or her life, It makes no allowance for any later actual or projected changes in mortality.

Local authority: Local authorities are the geographical areas administered by local councils.  There are 326 local authority districts in England, of which Dudley Borough is one.

Lone parent household: Comprises a father or mother with his or her child(ren) where the parent does not have a spouse, same-sex civil partner or partner in the household and the child(ren) do not have a spouse, same-sex civil partner or child in the household.

Long-term health problem: Problem or disability that limits day-to-day activities and has lasted, or is expected to last, at least 12 months.  This includes problems related to old age.

Lower Layer Super Output Area (LSOA): Areas within local authorities specifically created for the publication of statistics for small areas.  They cover the whole of England and are maintained by the Office for National Statistics (ONS).  LSOAs have a population of between 1,000 and 3,000, with an average of 1,600 people.  As of the 2011 Census there are 201 LSOAs in Dudley Borough.

M

Mean: The mean is the most common type of average used.  It is calculated by dividing the total of all values by the number of values.

Median: The median is a type of average.  It is the middle value where there are a number of values are arranged in numeric order.

Method of travel to work: The method used for the longest part, by distance, of the usual journey to work.

Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA): Areas within local authorities specifically created for the publication of statistics for small areas.  They cover the whole of England and were designed and maintained by the Office for National Statistics (ONS).  MSOAs have a population of between 5,000 and 15,000, with an average of 7,787 people.  As of the 2011 Census there are 43 MSOAs in Dudley Borough.

Mid-year estimates (MYE): Office for National Statistics (ONS) produces annual estimates of the resident population of England and Wales as at 30 June every year.  The estimates are provided broken down by local authority, sex and age.  The most authoritative population estimates come from the census, which takes place every 10 years in the UK.  Population estimates from a census are updated every year until the next census to produce mid-year population estimates.

Mode: The mode is a type of average.  It is the value which appears most frequently in a set of numbers.

Mortality: Mortality statistics are published by ONS and are based on information recorded when deaths are certified and registered.

Mortality rate: Mortality rates are derived from total deaths registered in the specific calendar year and corresponding mid-year population estimates.

N

Natural change: The term natural change (natural increase or natural decrease) in a population is the difference between the number of births and number of deaths in the population.

Net income: Income after deductions such as National Insurance contributions and Income Tax.

Net migration: Net migration is the difference between immigration and emigration. When immigration is higher than emigration net migration is above zero. This means that more people are coming to live in the UK than are leaving so migration is adding to the UK population.

NHS Digital: NHS Digital is the national provider of information and data for partners across the health & social care system.

O

Office for National Statistics (ONS): The UK's largest independent producer of official statistics and the recognised national statistical institute of the UK.

Output Area (OA): Areas within local authorities specifically created for the publication of statistics for small areas.  They cover the whole of England and are maintained by the Office for National Statistics (ONS).  OAs have a population of between 100 and 625, with an average of 309 people.  As of the 2011 Census there are 1008 OAs in Dudley Borough.

P

Patient Register (PR): A list of all patients who are registered with a GP in England and Wales

R

Resident population: The estimated population of an area includes all those usually resident in the area, whatever their nationality.  HM Forces stationed outside the United Kingdom are excluded but foreign forces stationed here are included.  Students are taken to be resident at their term-time address.

Responsible population: In the context of Dudley Borough, this is people who are registered with a Dudley GP practice and people who are not registered with a GP but are usually resident in Dudley Borough.

S

Socio-economic: Related to or concerned with the interaction of social and economic factors and the differences between groups of people caused by these factors.

Statistically significant: A statistical term meaning a result is unlikely to be due to chance.

T

Total Fertility Rate (TFR): The average number of live children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she experienced the current age-specific fertility rates through her childbearing lifespan.

U

Unemployed: Person not in employment, available to start work in the next two weeks, and either looking for work in the last four weeks or waiting to start a new job.

United Kingdom (UK): United Kingdom is all of Great Britain (England, Scotland & Wales) and Northern Ireland.

W

Ward / Electoral ward: Wards are areas within local authorities used for the election of local government councillors.  They are also used for the presentation of statistics.  There are 24 wards in Dudley Borough.

West Midlands Metropolitan Area: In Local Government terms defined as the seven local authority districts of Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Sandwell, Solihull, Walsall and Wolverhampton.

Workless households: Households where no-one aged 16 or over is in employment.  These members may be unemployed or economically inactive.  Economically inactive members may be unavailable to work because of family commitments, retirement or study, or unable to work through sickness or disability.